People of the Pacific Northwest
Hook | Questions | Procedures | Data Investigation | Analysis | Findings | New Questions
page contains the hook only. It is intended to spark interest in
the topic and lead students to ask questions or make predictions.
in the 18th century. You are in this picture.
Now imagine yourself
in the world today.
- Where are
- What are
- Why are
you doing this?
Explore the following
website to become familiar with groups of people that went through
a similar experience.
have been introduced to the Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest,
create a KWL chart as a whole class.
- Where are
- What has
- Are you
still able to relate to the picture?
- K - What
do students already know? What information/prior knowledge are
students bringing to this project?
- W - What
questions do students have about the topic? What would students
like to know about the Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest?
- L -
What have students learned about the topic? Students will create
a concept map with the help of the website about Native Americans
of the Pacific Northwest.
ask similar but different questions than those listed here. The
more students are guided to ask specific questions, the less inquiry-oriented
The goal of this project is for students to understand the adaptations,
as well as their consequences, experienced by the Native Americans
of the Pacific Northwest. Students will explore the website of the
Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest in order to answer the following
There might be
a list of sub-questions that will be asked as well. These questions
will guide students in the direction of asking and answering the main
- What was
the way of life for Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest
before the arrival of settlers and the adaptations that came with
- What predictions
can be made about the progression of Native American adaptations
for the future?
- What types
of environment did the Native American people inhabit? How did
they survive in their particular surroundings?
- Do you think
the Native American people wanted to change their way life? Why
or why not?
have asked questions related to the topic, they will need to decide
a number of things, including:
of data needed to answer the questions
tools for data manipulation
how data will be manipulated and presented
Type(s) of Data
use the Native
Americans of the Pacific Northwest Digital Collection to view
and examine photographs.
Defining Important Terms
- adaptation: the act or process
of adjusting, altering, or modifying to new condition
- progression: the act or an instance
of moving forward, advancing or developing
As a whole class,
students will begin a KWL chart and add to it each day. This will
brings students' attention to the topic of Native Americans of the
Pacific Northwest and prepare them to research the data. In order
to organize their findings, students will create a concept map using
As a whole class,
students will record their individual findings on a class KWL chart
each day. On an individual basis, each student will create their
own concept map. Observations from the photographs found in the
digital collection will be collected and added to individual students'
There is often
a giant leap from defining the type(s) of data desired and actually
finding the data. Providing guidance to students in finding the
necessary data may be necessary.
Web Inquiry Projects
use data/information other people have gathered and placed online.
Part of the inquiry process is finding the needed information. Students
will be provided the address to the website where they can search
to find the data they need.
be viewing and examining the photographs in this digital collection
in order to create their concept maps.
data/information usually has to be manipulated before it can answer
any questions. Students might be unaware of how data can best be
manipulated, so teacher guidance may be appropriate.
will view and examine photographs showing
lifestyles of the Native American people living in two separate
regions, the Northwest
Coast and the Plateau,
of the Pacific Northwest. As students generate
questions and gather information based on those questions, they
will produce a concept map. The following is an example from a student's
perspective of asking questions, gathering data, and organizing
that data in a concept map.
As I analyzed this resource, I created a concept map showing the
differences between the two cultural areas of the Northwest
Coast and the Plateau.
Beginning with the first inquiry question: What was the way
of life for Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest before the
arrival of settlers and the adaptations that came with them?,
it was logical for me to focus on the part of the question regarding
the life of the Native Americans before the arrival of settlers.
Since the digital resource I am examining has been categorized,
I am looking at those particular categories (e.g. work, transportation,
dwellings, etc.) and exploring certain photographs of the two cultural
areas of the Northwest
Coast and the Plateau.
I am able to deduce from these photographs the way of life of Native
Americans before the arrival of settlers and organize my deductions
in a concept map. I place the question: What was the way of life
for Native Americans living on the Northwest
the arrival of settlers? under the heading of Northwest
Coast on my concept map and begin to add possible answers
to it as I look at photographs. For example, while looking
at the photograph of the man trapping a whale, I can see that people
living on the Northwest
Coast probably fished
in order to provide food. They fished with weapons they made themselves
from the resources found in their environment. On my concept map
I add fished for food. Looking at the same photograph, and
knowing that they lived on the coast, I can also say that they used
canoes as a mode of transportation. I add used canoes for
transportation under the same question. Another photograph
I am looking at shows a family. This is probably an extended family
because of the various age representations between the family members
and the number of people standing together. They considered family
to be very important in their lives and possibly lived together,
or in close proximity of each other. I add lived with their extended
family to my concept map. I continue this process of
looking at photographs and making additions to my concept map. Under
the Plateau heading, I place the question: What was the
way of life for Native Americans living on the Plateau before the
arrival of settlers? and begin to add possible answers to my
concept map. For example, while looking at the photograph of a farmer
plowing his field, I can assume that these people grew their own
food. On my concept map I add grew own food. Another photograph
I am looking at shows a row of tepees. I add lived in tepees
on my concept map. I come across a photograph of a person wearing
a ceremonial dress and a headdress. This was their attire for special
occasions according to the type of decorations shown on the dress.
I add wore ceremonial dress and headdress on my concept map.
I continue this process of looking at photographs and making additions
to my concept map. Click on the following concept map to see an
example of its beginning stages.
After having completed a concept map about the way of life of Native
Americans prior to the arrival of settlers, I continue chronologically
and ask questions regarding the adaptations that were made by Native
Americans after the arrival of settlers. During the period of time
that the photographs were taken, it is obvious that Native Americans
had taken on many of the adaptations brought to them by the settlers.
I continue to examine photographs of the two cultural areas of the
Pacific Northwest and infer the type of adaptations
made by the Native Americans. Referring to my previous concept map
may help in concluding the types of adaptations made by Native Americans
(e.g. Native Americans adapting the settlers’ attire). I continue
to organize my findings in the concept map. Under the heading for
I add the question: What adaptations were made by Native Americans
living on the Northwest
and add answers to my concept map. For example, while looking at a
photograph of Native American people dressed in clothing that resembled
the settlers’ clothing, I can make the assumption that the Native
American people adapted the settlers’ way of dress. On my concept
map I add began to wear western attire. Another photograph
shows a group of houses and cabins, possibly a way of living in a
village that was adapted from the settlers. I add inhabited houses
and cabins in villages. I also see a photograph of younger Native
American people standing outside of a church dressed in what looks
like uniforms. These people are most likely receiving some type of
an education from the church. I add educated in churches. I
continue this process of looking at photographs and making additions
to my concept map. Under the heading for Plateau, I add the
question: What adaptations were made by Native Americans living
on the Plateau? and add answers to it on my concept map. For example,
while looking at the photograph of a ferry crossing a river, I can
assume that Native American people adapted the use of the ferry for
transportation across a river. On my concept map I add used ferries
when crossing rivers. Another photograph shows a farmer using
a plow in his field. The plow was probably introduced by the settlers
to aid in cultivating the fields. I add used plows when farming.
I see another photograph of Native American people in uniforms learning
some type of a trade or life skill. These people are most likely being
educated to be able to adapt to the settlers’ way of life. I add education
focused on acquiring life skills. I continue this process of looking
at photographs and making additions to my concept map. Click on the
following concept map to see an example.
result is meaningful unless communicated appropriately. Discussion
of findings should be supported. There may or may not be definitive
answers to the questions students raised.
having answered questions about Native Americans concerning their
past and present situations, I continue working chronologically
and extend my knowledge of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest
to reflect on their future. The second inquiry question, What
predictions can be made about the progression of Native American
adaptations for the future?, will help me focus on my previous
findings of Native American life prior to and after the arrival
of settlers and predict adaptations that will remain and progress
in the future. With the help of the information in my concept map,
as well as ongoing examinations of the photographs, I record my
predictions in my concept map. I place the question: What adaptations
will be made by Native Americans living on the Northwest
they progress into the future? under the heading of Northwest
Coast and begin to add predictions to my concept map. For example,
by referring to my concept map and noticing that Native American
people made wood carvings and began to sell them once the settlers
arrived, I am able to make a prediction about the progression of
producing and selling such hand-made products in future stores.
On my concept map I add stores selling hand-made products.
Another prediction I am able to make is from the photograph that
shows the church as the source of education. This adaptation of
receiving formal education will eventually move from the church
to actual schools specializing in education of some sort. I predict
that Native American people will continue receiving education by
attending schools, rather than churches, in the future. I add education
in schools. Under the Plateau heading, I place the question:
What adaptations will be made by Native Americans living on the
Plateau as they progress into the future? and begin to add predictions
to my concept map. For example, by referring to my concept map and
noticing that the Native American people grew their own food and
adapted the use of a plow for farming, I can make the prediction
that they will continue this progression in farming by beginning
to use modern farming equipment in the future. On my concept map
I add use of modern farming techniques and equipment. Another
prediction I am able to make is from the photographs of Native American
people riding horses. Horses were used for transportation, but as
the Native American people progress into the future, they will begin
to use carriages and buggies that are pulled by the horses. This
will allow them to travel with more people. I add use of horse-drawn
wagons, carriages, and buggies. Click on the following concept
map to see an example of its final stages.
After having analyzed
this digital resource and having created a fairly chronological concept
map, students are able to make conclusions based on the information
they gathered. Examining the differences between the way of life of
Native Americans before, during, and after the arrival of settlers
helps students understand the manner in which these people had to
adapt to their changing environment. It was not only the physical
aspects of their environment that Native Americans had to adapt to,
but also the arrival of people who were foreign to their environment.
These foreign people brought with them their own definitions for the
way of life, and either through force or interest, Native Americans
began to take on these adaptations. Progressing from their traditional
way of life to their more modern and western way of life, Native Americans
have successfully adapted to their surrounding environment while still
keeping those customs they deem sacred.
will complete the class KWL chart by referring to the data they
collected and organized onto their concept maps.
will then share their project with the class through a presentation
that utilizes their creativity. Students can present their concept
maps and their findings through a poster, use of the overhead
projector, or a power point presentation.
will reflect on the project by writing about the most interesting
thing they learned about, or found, while examining the digital
often lead to new questions, starting the inquiry cycle over again.
To further students'
research, the following are some possible follow up questions:
- What was
the general consensus among the Native American people when their
own people began to adapt their way of life to that of the settlers'?
- How were
the lives of those that adapted to the new way of life affected?
How were the lives of those that did not adapt affected?